Elementary Row Operations to Perform on Matrices

Matrix Elementary Row Operations top left.Matrix Elementary Row Operations top right.
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Elementary row operations are performed on the augmented matrix of a system of linear equations. These operations produce a new augmented matrix corresponding to a new equivalent system of linear equations. Algorithms that use matrix elementary row operations to solve systems of linear equations are Gaussian elimination with back-substitution and Gauss-Jordan elimination.

There are three elementary row operations:

1) The interchanging of two rows,

2) The multiplying a row by a non-zero constant, and

3) The adding of a multiple of a row to another row.

Interchanging of Two Rows:

3×4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1:

3

4

5

6

Row 2:

-2

1

0

3

Row 3:

4

2

2

4

Interchanged Rows 1 and 2:

3×4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1:

-2

1

0

3

Row 2:

3

4

5

6

Row 3:

4

2

2

4

Multiplying a Row by a Non-zero Constant:

3×4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1:

-4

0

2

6

Row 2:

2

-4

4

1

Row 3:

-4

0

2

6

Multiply Row 2 by 1/2:

3×4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1:

-4

0

2

6

Row 2:

1

-2

2

1/2

Row 3:

-4

0

2

6

Adding a Multiple of a Row to Another Row:

3×4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1:

1

2

-6

3

Row 2:

0

3

-2

-1

Row 3:

5

2

1

-2

Add -2 times the First Row to Third Row:

3×4

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1:

1

2

-6

3

Row 2:

0

3

-2

-1

Row 3:

3

-2

13

-8

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